vitamin c function and sources

Animal sources provide preformed vitamin A, or retinols. NATURAL SOURCES: Fish liver oils, liver, carrots, green and yellow vegetables, dairy products. 3.9. This type is ready for the body to use. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. Hi Name : Ranveer KumarTitle : Vitamin CLink :Topics :Vitamin CVitamin C full detailsVitamin C complete informationVitamin C FunctionsVitamin C deficiencyVit. Needed for vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and tooth growth, immune system health. Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). and Diet Information, Calories Vitamin C (Figure 2) is abundantly available in many natural sources, including fresh fruits and vegetables. It is a vital nutrient for an organism which maintains the normal body growth and other functions. Vitamin C helps in cell growth and recognition, it is essential in the biosynthesis of collagen (this is an important component for the connective tissues in our body), and various . Why is Vitamin C beneficial for our body? How? The mechanism of free radical action on DNA is shown in Figure 8. Racz et al. Drinking a small glass of 100% fruit juice or including a vitamin-C-rich food with meals can help boost iron absorption. In Volume 25, leading experts present studies on the value of increased ascorbic acid intake and explore its specific contributions to human and animal health. the formation of protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels for healing. In order to improve iron absorption from the diet, vitamin C from plant-based sources such as pepper and tomatoes would be needed for this process. 4.6. Vitamin C reduces the damage caused by UV-light exposure. Vitamin C reduces the formation of cataract and hence useful in the treatment of glaucoma. Though Ascorbate is not a cure for the common cold, serious complications of it, maybe avoided by regular inclusion of Vitamin C in the diet. Cooked animal-sourced foods contain virtually no vitamin C, but low amounts can be found in raw liver, eggs, fish roe, meat and . This unique low-cost and user-friendly sensor was validated for the nanomolar detection of AA. Needed for vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and tooth growth, immune system health. Maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage. Vitamin C may also support your body's wound-healing process and may help prevent kidney stones and cataracts. This function is supported by its co-factor vitamin C. Besides this, vitamin C performs as a strong antioxidant and immune system modulator, 15. Administration of high dose of vitamin C gives long survival times for patients with advanced cancers. Vitamin C, also known as Ascorbic Acid plays a vital role in the body. available. Function Vitamin C is a water-soluble compound found in living organisms. green and red peppers, collard greens, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, The influence of AA concentration on the aggregation induced by dichlorvos in AA-AuNPs (Figure 4) and the optical property of the AA-Au NPs was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy [8]. Overall, the evidence suggests that adequate dietary vitamin C intake and possibly higher intake at plasma saturating levels (100-200 mg/day) may help prevent the common . It is needed for the repair of tissues in all parts of the body. The new tissue is rebuilt with the help of collagen framework. Deficiency: Scurvy the most severe form of vitamin C deficiency arises mainly due to faulty cooking habits and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Güçlü et al. All the studies indicate that the vitamin C formulations might slow AMD progression and reduce the high risk of developing advanced AMD. [51] have proposed a spectrophotometric method based on ascorbic acid oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid, by using the Cu(II)-neocuproine complex, which is reduced to Cu(I)-bis(neocuproine), the absorbance of the latter being determined at 450 nm. Directly not, But you can strengthen your Immunity power. Your email address will not be published. bCalculated on a body weight basis of infants. This reaction is the basis of most of the biological functions of ascorbic acid. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Function. Form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood . Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin and is found in variable quantities in fruits and vegetables and organ meats (e.g. Vitamin C is an essential vitamin that means your body can’t produce it. A vitamin is an organic compound found in food and other natural sources that our body needs for basic function and health. This book is dedicated to the students of nutrition who may be interested in the subject for themselves alone, for their families, for teaching and counselling others and for research and investi gations. Vitamin C improves the absorption of non-heme iron, the type of iron found in plant foods such as leafy greens. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin A, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin A.. Introduction. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is essential for many bodily functions, including the production of collagen. Vitamin C plays a key role in healing wounds by the formation of collagen, connective tissue. Licensee IntechOpen. The important functions of vitamin C include the formation of protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels for healing wounds and forming scar tissue, for repairing and maintaining cartilage, bones, and teeth and aid in the absorption of iron. Vitamin C helps in the synthesis of collagen. The method is based on the formation of coloured azo dye by diazotization of 2,4-dichloroaniline, followed by azo-coupling reaction between the resulting product and ascorbic acid [57]. Vitamin A is the name of a group of fat-soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters [].Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication [1,4,5]. Vitamin A from animal sources (retinol): fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver Dietary sources of Vitamin C: Lemon, gooseberry (amala), guava, cabbage, tomatoes, potato skin, are good source of vitamin C. (Milk is not a good source) Deficiency of Vitamin C: Vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy (a disease characterized by the spongy and sore gums, loose teeth), anemia, swollen joints and fragile blood vessel. Attempts to simplify such methods have resulted in the development of new methods such as the nickel hexacyanoferrate film-modified aluminium electrode [58] and graphite epoxy electrode [59]. Drinking a small glass of 100% fruit juice or including a vitamin-C-rich food with meals can help boost iron absorption. It is required in the formation of bones, muscles, blood vessels, and gums. The lower detection limit for AA was observed at 0.1 nm. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is necessary for the growth, development and repair of all body tissues. reported the use of AA-Au NPs as a colorimetric probe for detection of dichlorvos in water and wheat samples. Deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy, widespread connective tissue weakness and capillary fragility. In analytical methods in 2014, D’souza et al. It is an essential nutrient for various metabolism in our body and also serves as a reagent for the preparation of many materials in the pharmaceutical and food industry. But the antioxidant activity of vitamin C helps to protect UV damage caused by free radicals [26]. Functions of vitamin C on skin 3.9.1. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin found in a lot of fruits and vegetables. Review showing the use of prophylactic vitamin C reduces the cold duration in adults and children [19]. The major signs of the disease occur primarily in mesenchymal tissues. Vitamin C - recommended daily dosage, functions and food sources Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin. Average daily recommended amounts of vitamin C for different ages are also given in Table 1. aCalculated as per the average intake of breast milk. Sudha J. Devaki and Reshma Lali Raveendran (August 2nd 2017). It strengthens the general physical condition by removing toxic metals from the body. Amazing Benefits Of Amla Juice: 10 Reasons To Eat Daily on -2021!! Hence, it is necessary for them to intake this . One of the important properties of vitamin C is its antioxidant activity. It had three main tasks: to review the full scope of vitamin and minerals requirements; to draft and adopt a report which would provide recommended nutrient intakes for vitamins A, C, D, E, and K; the B vitamins; calcium; iron; magnesium; ... This newly revised edition contains updated versions of all of the topics that were in the first edition and has been substantially expanded with an additional 5 chapters. A sensitive, simple and low-cost spectrophotometric method was introduced by Kobra and Somayye in 2015. Vitamin C Functions, best source, And Deficiency Lamba_R June 21, 2021 No Comments Ascorbic acid is another name of vitamin C, Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin and water-soluble vitamins are dissolved in water and destroyed by high heat, so the best source of food containing Vit C should not be cooked in the heat. Thus, ascorbic acid can reduce toxic, reactive oxygen species superoxide anion (O2•) and hydroxyl radical (OH•), as well as organic (RO2) and nitrogen (NO2•) oxy radicals. All the methods mentioned above involve complicated pretreatment techniques and expensive instruments. No, research indicates that vitamin C is only effective in prevention of colds, but not in treating colds. These include: helping to protect cells and keeping them healthy; maintaining healthy skin, blood vessels, bones and cartilage; helping with wound healing; Lack of vitamin C can lead to scurvy. It acts as inhibitor of this enzyme due to structural similarity to glucuronate of hyaluronin, the substrate of hyaluronidase. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a nutrient your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. It can be used in pharmaceutical/veterinary formulations without prior sample preparation. Vitamin C is an essential vitamin that means your body can’t produce it. Helping with wound healing. Vitamin C aids to heal wounds quicker, strengthen the immune system and fight cancerous cells. What are the common symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency? liver and kidney). Vitamin C is also vital to your body's healing process. sure to sunlight, liver, eggs, butter, cheese, sh . The important functions of vitamin C include the formation of protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels for healing wounds and forming scar tissue, for repairing and maintaining cartilage, bones, and teeth and aid in the absorption of iron. Sources. Good sources of Vitamin C include oranges, red and green peppers and potatoes [6]. It is also important for the maintenance of skin and the mucous membrane; More importantly, the mucous membrane promotes good eyesight, specifically in low light. It is perhaps one of the best sources of fiber as well as Vitamin K, and Vitamin C. Half a cup of cooked broccoli contained – 51 mg of Vitamin C-as per research. Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is important to many functions in the body. VITAMIN A: Promotes skeletal growth, normal tooth structure, healthy mucous membranes, healthy skin, eyes and hair; essential for night vision. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Protects your memory and thinking as you age-. All these features are accompanied by psychological changes: hysteria, hypochondria and depression. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. One of the studies suggests that pharmacologic doses of vitamin C might show promising effects on the treatment of tumours [12]. This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The aqueous PPICS/Pt electrode could serve as a prospective low-cost and efficient electrochemical sensor and provide promising and outstanding contributions to the food, beverage and medical industries [70]. Ascorbic acid reacts with free radicals undergoing single-electron oxidation to produce a relatively poor reactive intermediate, the ascorbyl radical, which disproportionates to ascorbate and dehydroascorbate. Meat holds an important position in human nutrition. Although protein from this source has lower biological value than egg albumin, it is an exclusive source of heme iron and vitamins and minerals. Detection of vitamin C through HPLC has been done by many groups. 4.8. Can you help me out by sharing this blog post with your family, friends & colleagues? We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. -Assists in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Vitamin A from animal sources (retinol): fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver. This is a survey of the fascinating history of the various ideas and theories causing scurvy. wounds and forming scar tissue, for repairing and . The samples were multivitamin tablet, effervescent tablet, vitamin C injection, natural orange juice, orange syrup powdered and commercial orange liquid. 3. Another vital function of vitamin C is - the synthesis of protein. The major vitamin C benefits are enhanced immunity and antioxidant activity. Diet and Health examines the many complex issues concerning diet and its role in increasing or decreasing the risk of chronic disease. - Health Benefits of Exercise - Weight The lower detection limit reported as 0.30l g/L (S/N = 3). Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. Beta-carotene, a form of vitamin A, protects cells from . Vitamin C appears to have the ability to enhance various immune cell functions, however, the precise dose and ideal timing of vitamin C intake has not been fully elucidated. Besides that, vitamin C also reduces the risk of anaemia in those who are iron deficient. Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on the nutritional issues associated with aging and the important metabolic consequences of diet, nutrition, and health. Join This Channel To Get Access To Perks:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCG5TBPANNSiKf1Dp-R5Dibg/joinFollow on Instagram:- https://www.instagram.com/drgbhan. The Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise examines the different aspects of exercise-induced oxidative stress, its management, and how reactive oxygen may affect the functional capacity of various vital organs and tissues. Vitamin C reduced the number of sunburned cells, decreased erythema response and reduced DNA damage induced by UV exposure [27]. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, ending the electron-stealing reaction, as shown in Figure 7. When it comes to vitamin K and its function, sources and the question of deficiency, we simply don't hear much about it.One reason may be because vitamin K is the nutrient that helps your blood to clot but that is not the only purpose. It's involved in many body functions, including formation of collagen, absorption . Children having this disease present with a limp or inability to walk, tenderness of the lower limbs, bleeding of the gums and petechial haemorrhages. In fact, there are several things you should know about vitamin K, beginning with the fact there are two forms of the vitamin that are typically discussed: K1 . It cannot act as a sunscreen since it cannot absorb UV light. This book aims to curtail the overfat epidemic by exposing a decades-long problem and offering a research-based, practical solution to help prevent and treat it. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Exposure to light can also reduce vitamin C content. The use of vitamin C might reduce the duration of common cold due to its anti-histamine effect of high dose of vitamin C [20]. The method is based on the reaction of AgNO3 with ascorbic acid in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and slightly basic medium to prepare silver nanoparticles [54]. Ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine and catecholamine are important neurotransmitters in the human body. In pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, HPLC is used, which is considered as a sensitive and selective method. improves iron absorption and resistance to infection. May lower your risk of heart disease-. The DRIs established in this book incorporate current scientific evidence about the roles of vitamin D and calcium in human health and will serve as a valuable guide for a range of stakeholders including dietitians and other health ... Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin C (see Table 2) [].Citrus fruits, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes are major contributors of vitamin C to the American diet [].Other good food sources include red and green peppers, kiwifruit, broccoli, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, and cantaloupe (see Table 2) [8,12]. Not only are they useful for increasing your blood collagen levels, but one lychee provides 7mg of vitamin C. One more cruciferous food on the list, Brussel Sprouts are a popular item to be used in salads. While we have seen many videos of kids reacting to eating lemons and making faces, we can assure you that it is not the best way to consume it. Oxidative stress, arising as a result of an imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defences, causes damage to a wide range of molecular species including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Vitamin C may also support your body's wound-healing process and may help prevent kidney stones and cataracts. If you're looking to support immunity, get enough vitamin C, to be sure. • These electrochemical methods are widely used to monitor AA metabolites in vivoor in vitro[61, 62]. Function. The best way to ensure adequate intake of the antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamins C and E and various kinds of minerals, is through a balanced diet consisting of 5–8 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The main function of vitamin C is to assist the body in the synthesis of collagen. However, the lesser-known fact is the health benefits of strawberries. Vitamin D is found in dairy products, fish, sunflower seeds and egg yolks; however, very little vitamin D is needed from dietary sources if sufficient vitamin D is absorbed from sunlight. It probably has the highest content of Vitamin A, K, B6, manganese, calcium and not to mention, Vitamin C. A cup of chopped kale contains 80 mg of Vitamin C while a cup of cooked kale contains 53 mg. Sweet and watery, who knew Lychee would be a good source of Vitamin C. Many of us as kids have had a lot of lychee juice, but the best way of eating it is to break the fruit and eat the pulp. The topical application of vitamin C also reduces the effect of UV exposure and skin wrinkling and skin tumour [31]. The only recent biochemistry book written specifically for the veterinary field, this text covers cellular-level concepts related to whole-body physiologic processes in a reader-friendly, approachable manner. Good sources of vitamin C. Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and . The richest sources of ascorbic acid including Indian gooseberry, citrus fruits such as limes, oranges and lemons, tomatoes, potatoes, papaya, green and red peppers, kiwifruit, strawberries and cantaloupes, green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, fortified cereals and its juices are also rich sources of vitamin C. Another source of vitamin C is animals. and Diet Information - Weight Training The new tissue is rebuilt with the help of the collagen framework. Form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood . The important functions of vitamin C include. Review showing the use of prophylactic vitamin C reduces the cold duration in adults and children [19]. It is said that consuming 100 mg of vitamin C will boost iron absorption by 67%. From our own group, we have synthesized electrically conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanospindles (PEDOTSs) and used for the electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid [69] (Figure 10). FUNCTION Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. Electrochemical methods have attracted much attention from clinical diagnostic perspectives because of their easy operation, low cost, rapid response, high sensitivity and good selectivity. Suggested Use: Take one tablet daily with food. What Are The Main Function Of Vitamin C? Collagen also protects and supports organs and other soft tissues. © 2017 The Author(s). In this perspective, this chapter can develop interest and curiosity among all practicing scientists and technologists by expounding the details of its sources . ", "Is blending better than juicing?", and "Can I take my medications with it?" Here is everything you need to know--from the original source--to receive the full gift of what Anthony calls "one of the greatest healing tonics of all time." However, the results are inconsistent and still research is undergoing in this field. Other chapters in this book include a review of the role of vitamin C in the physiology of several diseases, good dietary sources of vitamin C, a study of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on vitamin C status in exposed ... This function is supported by its co-factor vitamin C. Besides this, vitamin C performs as a strong antioxidant and immune system modulator [37, 38]. This edition provides guidelines for the seven million Americans who follow vegetarian diets—a number that has tripled in the last ten years. Fresh fruits and vegetables are the best sources. from the intestine and their deposition in bones. As already discussed, from a well functioning immune system to preventing scurvy, vitamin C has a part to play in all. Deficiency of vitamin C in humans causes a major disease called scurvy. Collagen protects our skin from wrinkling and makes our skin firm and strong. The functions of vitamin c is an interesting topic nowadays. Vitamin A from animal sources (retinol): fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver The antioxidant property of vitamin C helps to treat cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin C also is known as ascorbic acid and is an essential nutrient in many multicellular organisms, especially in humans. This method can be used to detect biological materials, pharmaceuticals, food and drugs. Top 11 Instant Tips on- Home Remedies for Headaches-On-2021!! Benefits of Activity, Weight The main dietary sources of vitamin C are fruits and vegetables. Function of the Vitamin: Vitamin A: Vitamin A helps in the development and maintenance of teeth, skeletal and soft tissues. In response to UV light, vitamin C transport proteins are increased, suggesting an increased need for vitamin C uptake for adequate protection [27, 28]. Don’t worry take vitamin C sufficiently and strengthen your immunity power. Vitamin C deficiency 1. The various functions of vitamin C, including the antioxidant activity, formation of protein, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels, for healing wounds and form scar tissue, for repairing and maintaining cartilage, bone, and teeth, and aiding in the absorption of iron, were discussed. Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid (AA) is an essential nutrient in many multicellular organisms, especially in humans. Microwaving and steaming vitamin C-rich foods may reduce cooking losses. The method has been used to deep-frozen raspberry cream analysis together with three commonly used chemical methods of vitamin C analysis. Thus, researchers have taken interest in the role of vitamin C and other antioxidants in the development and treatment of these diseases. Suw et al. Brocolli. Functions of vitamin C on skin 3.9.1. These methods use specific and modified working electrode systems that are complicated [60]. Built by scientists, for scientists. Sources. in 1990 reported that HPLC used the HPLC method for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables. A. Are You Ready To Learn More- About 13 Amazing Benefits Of Turmeric Milk? Cooking vitamin C-rich foods or storing them for a long period of time can reduce the vitamin C content. Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen The book about the power of sprouts as an ultra-food for health, weight loss, and optimum nutrition by Doug Evans, the co-founder of Organic Avenue and the founder of Juicero The Sprout Book is a transformative plan to empower readers to ... of Obesity - Nutrition and Fitness The use of vitamin C might reduce the duration of common cold due to its anti-histamine effect of high dose of vitamin C [20]. Sources. Several studies have reported the electrochemical sensing methods for detection of ascorbic acid. In adults deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy. Photoprotection Vitamin C reduces the damage caused by UV-light exposure. This book will cover a wider spectrum of human health and diseases including the role of phytonutrients in the prevention and treatment. Vitamin C improves the absorption of non-heme iron, the type of iron found in plant foods such as leafy greens. This book aims to gather valuable information about this important vitamin, including sources of this nutrient with such important biological properties, the effects of processing and a number of different approaches to the roles of this ... Needed for vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and tooth growth, immune system health. A recent review of 50 studies on vitamin C and cognitive function found a significant relationship between the two. Are you anxious about Coronavirus? Moreover, one medium-sized orange provides 70mg of the said vitamins. It is a very essential nutrient for various metabolism in our body and also serves as a reagent for the preparation of many materials in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Electrochemical sensing methods are more widely applied as they are simple, sensitive and moderate methods. Ans. Many studies have suggested that vitamin C consumption alone will not reduce the effect of UV exposure; however, a combination of vitamin C and E effectively increases minimal erythemal dose (MED) (the lowest dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that will produce a detectable erythema 24 hours after UVR exposure) and decreases erythema-induced blood flow to damaged areas of skin [30]. Functions of Vitamin C: The main functions of vitamin c are as:-The main function of vitamin c is that is that, it helps in the synthesis of collagen, which is an important component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, and bone. Analytical process for detecting dichlorvos using AA-Au NPs as a colorimetric probe [8]. Research is undergoing in detail for using vitamin C in cancer treatment [9–11]. In fact, these neurons contain some of the richest concentrations in human body tissues. It is required for the formation of collagen, which helps to maintain skin, teeth, gums, tendons and ligaments. Food Sources: Citrus fruits like orange, lemon, tomatoes, guava, watermelon are good sources of Vitamin C . available. The new tissue is rebuilt with the help of the collagen framework. Sources. "Provides an up-to-the-minute, comprehensive analysis of the most recent theoretical and clinical developments in vitamin C research--integrating a wide variety of interdisciplinary studies into a single-source volume. Most DNA damage is repaired metabolically; however, the frequency of elevated steady-state levels of oxidized DNA bases is estimated to be sufficient to cause mutational events. Contact our London head office or media team here. Exercises - Healthy Eating Tips Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to . This book is divided into 11 chapters that discuss the conditions affecting vitamin requirements. The introductory chapters deal with the intracellular localization, synthesis, molecular structure, and reaction rate of enzymes. The antioxidant property of vitamin C helps for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin is an organic compound which is found in the food in variable and minute quantity and must be supplied to the animal organism from the external sources. Another vital function of vitamin C is – the synthesis of protein. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. One of the amino acids used to build collagen—hydroxyproline—is only synthesized when vitamin C is available. As much as we like the pulpy slice or its juice.

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